Many countries have been saying that differentiation needs to be inserted back into the text. And ECO agrees. How would we otherwise be able to reach a dynamic differentiation approach for the Paris agreement and unlock the needed ambition?
During yesterday’s exercise, many countries—mostly developing countries—suggested that differentiation needs to be well represented in the co-chairs’ text in order to make it a valid starting point for negotiations.
Multiple Parties, rightfully, made it clear that the Paris agreement must be under the Convention. This includes the application of its principles, and that differentiation must be incorporated in the preamble. Additionally, ECO thinks the general mention in Article 2 of common but differentiated responsibilities in the light of national circumstances could be strengthened by referencing different levels of development.
Differentiation must also be addressed in each element of the Agreement in the context of the relevant issues—specifically, who does what in the mitigation, finance and adaptation sections.
ECO was pleased to see the insertions to the text by Brazil and others that bring CBDR back into the mitigation section. Developed countries should take the lead on mitigation actions, with ambitious contributions from all countries, especially those who are capable.
On INDCs, differentiation would allow different countries to take on different types of commitments according to their responsibility, capability and needs. ECO believes that such a dynamic categorisation would allow countries to progressively raise ambition, particularly with MOI.
ECO has not forgotten about differentiation with respect to finance and adaptation. On finance, ECO urges Parties, including those in a position to do so, to ensure a clear differentiation framework. Matching mainly public climate finance with conditional INDCs is critical to equity and closing the emissions gap. On adaptation support, priorities need to be defined.
Finally, dynamic differentiation should be implemented through the science and equity based review of aggregate and individual assessments as part of the Paris ambition mechanism.